You now know that different protein sources are digested and absorbed differently from each other, so it's important to match your protein source to your needs. At the other end of the spectrum is the protein casein. Casein is a slow-digesting protein. During cheese making, special enzymes are added to hot milk, causing the casein in the milk to coagulate or change to a solid state.
The casein curd can then be used in food products or dietary supplements. Although casein and whey protein are derived from milk, they are absorbed very differently by the body. The body breaks down proteins into amino acids, which remain in the bloodstream until they are absorbed. When a person consumes casein, the levels of these amino acids remain high in the blood for approximately 4 to 5 hours (while in serum, these levels rise in the blood for about 90 minutes).
This is because casein forms curds once it is exposed to stomach acids, just as it does in the production of cheese. This curd actually lengthens the body's digestion and absorption processes. By taking longer to digest, casein protein can provide the body with a slow and steady release of amino acids instead of releasing them quickly. Walter Willett is professor of epidemiology and nutrition at Harvard T, H.
But this isn't a reason to choose animal proteins over plant proteins. The difference in absorption is minimal, generally 10 to 20 percent lower in plants than in animals, and it would only be a cause for concern if our diets had just enough protein to meet the requirements of approximately 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight, or about 10 percent of daily calories. For adults in the United States and other rich countries, protein intake is often above what we need (about 15 percent of daily calories on average), so the difference in absorption between animal and plant proteins is largely insignificant. One of the reasons why there is so much confusion surrounding this topic relates to amino acids.
Proteins are chains of 20 amino acids, which are the basic components of muscles, other components of the body, hormones, antibodies and enzymes that control our metabolism. Our body cannot produce nine of these amino acids and they are called essential because we need to obtain them from our diet. A common argument in favor of eating animal proteins is that they are “high-quality” and “complete” compared to plant proteins, in terms of their essential amino acids. Let's start with the idea of protein quality.
This nutritional concept is based on the mix of specific amino acids that maximize the growth of young mice and other mammals. However, maximizing growth isn't a problem for adults. By this definition of protein quality, eggs and milk are the best, but they're not much higher than most plant-based sources of protein, and the protein in beef is actually similar to soy protein. You also don't need to worry about whether plant proteins are “complete”.
It's a myth that plant foods don't contain all the essential amino acids and that we need to eat complementary proteins, such as rice and beans, in the same meal for optimal results. In fact, if we eat a variety of plant foods in our diet, the overall mix of amino acids is not substantially different from what we would get from eating animal protein. Concerns have been expressed that anti-nutrients, such as phytates, lectins and oxalates from plant foods, may reduce the absorption of essential nutrients. In poor populations with high consumption of starchy foods and low dietary diversity, eating a lot of phytates may contribute to deficiencies of some minerals.
However, in the context of a more diverse diet, as is the case in the United States, this does not seem to be a problem. Phytates may contribute to the many health benefits of plant foods due to their antioxidant activity, and a higher intake of phytates has been associated with good overall health and a lower risk of kidney stones. For everyone else, the health effects of the whole protein package are more important. The best way to understand the health effects of protein-containing foods is through randomized trials to assess their short-term impact on disease risk factors, such as blood cholesterol and blood pressure, and through epidemiological studies to assess their long-term effects on the risks of specific diseases and on overall mortality.
Our research group conducted a prospective analysis of more than 130,000 men and women who were followed for up to three decades. The total amount of protein in the diet was not related to overall mortality or other outcomes, but mortality increased with higher consumption of animal protein and decreased with higher amounts of vegetable protein. Although some evidence suggests that total protein requirements may be greater at older ages, the same pattern that favored vegetable protein was observed among older adults when frailty was the result. Protein and calorie requirements increase with pregnancy and among serious athletes, but without a clear advantage of animals compared to.
For those who feel “better” with more animal protein, I suggest that they slowly add more nuts and soy foods to their meals, which can also be filling and delicious. While this would represent a major change for many Americans, traditional diets from Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Mediterranean region offer plenty of tasty and appealing examples. This doesn't mean that we should eliminate steak or Parmesan cheese from our diet or become vegans, although it is an option that some may want to follow. Studies have shown that diets with approximately two servings of animal foods a day can be healthy and sustainable.
That can mean one cup of yogurt plus 3 to 4 ounces of chicken or fish. So instead of eating large portions of animal protein at every meal, focus on adding more plant-based proteins to your plate, such as lentils, tofu, chickpeas, peanuts, nuts and beans. Make your diet as varied as possible by incorporating a wide variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Not only is this smart eating, but it can also unlock new flavors and exciting foods.
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You can add your own customization and then we'll provide everything you need in the perfect quantities, ensuring that you're consuming the high-quality protein needed to achieve your goals. However, a further increase in the level of enrichment of legumes in these products, to meet the requirements of essential amino acids according to the needs of the body, could achieve protein retention comparable to that induced by animal proteins, such as casein. Note that this observation was reported regardless of the amount of protein ingested (20 g or 40 g).
Protein powdersare generally consumed in liquid form without much fiber or fat and, in general, liquids are digested faster than whole foods.
The recommended dose of protein powder is 1 to 2 tablespoons (about 25 to 50 grams), so if you consumed 20 grams of whey protein during training, that means that your body will be able to use that protein in the two hours after exercising. The plant-based proteins investigated so far are characterized by having a DIAAS lower than 100%, which is, again, lower than that of animal proteins. Whey provided 2.65 grams of leucine, but both pea protein and whey protein were just in the middle of the optimal leucine range. However, plant-based protein sources are rarely consumed “pure,” but are generally eaten as part of a meal that contains other protein sources.
That means that protein powder supplements that are poured into shakes or protein shakes will be absorbed more quickly than most dietary proteins. Increasing protein intake could help achieve the essential amino acid requirements recommended for the human diet. Regardless of age, these studies show that combining plant proteins with animal proteins can activate muscle protein anabolism in a similar way to high-quality nutritional proteins, such as milk proteins (whey). .